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Ice packs - ice packs
Ice packs (ice caps, ice caps), cloth covers and dry packs, ice cubes, pots, hammers.
1. The ice into the small pieces into the basin, the water rushed to the acute angle into the ice bag or ice bag about l / 2 volume, after the exhaust folder pocket, dry bag outside the water, hold down, check no water after Into the cloth cover, place the cold parts, ice bag can also be lifted, so that the bottom of the contact with the site to reduce the pressure.
2. Ice cap for head cooling to prevent brain edema. The ice rushed to the acute angle, into the ice cap about 1 / 2-2 / 3 amount. Ice inside the side of a layer of dry cloth, put the head, so that the head in addition to the face, buried in them. Can quickly cool down.
3. At any time to see the ice bag with or without leakage of skin parts, to prevent frostbite.
1. High fever patients can be placed on the forehead, head or surface of large blood vessels at the Department.
2. Head cooling period, should closely observe the patient's condition and temperature changes, the general body temperature should not be less than 36 degrees.
Chemical ice pack
Chemical ice pack, also known as health ice pack (developed using polymer materials. Have high efficiency storage, cooling at -3 degrees low temperature, still maintain good flexibility). Easy to use. 【Method】
1. The chemical ice bag out of the core into the refrigerator freezer, frozen 2-3h can be used or spare.
2. Remove the body after the frozen chemical ice pack to place parts. 2 chemical ice packs can be exchanged for frozen use.
3. Such as chemical ice bag is too cold, can be added flannel package.
With ice packs. Cold and wet compress
Basin filled with ice and ice water, dressing clamp 2, pad 2, rubber cloth, treatment towel.
The rubber cloth and treatment towel into the application of the site, the pad immersed in ice water or cold water, with a dressing clamp wring dry pad, to not drip is appropriate, apply to thinking, every 3-5min replacement 1, Duration 15-20min or by doctor's advice. Warm water bath
32-34 ℃ warm water l basin, within the dip gauze or small towel 2, large towels, ice bags, hot water bags.
1. Ready to bring the bed to the bed, to explain the patient, the head put the ice bag (to help cool and prevent the blood surface when the blood vessels contraction, blood concentration to the head, causing congestion) feet under the hot water bag.
2. To help patients exposed wiping parts, under the pad of large towels, wring dry wet towel wrapped around the hand into a glove to the edge of the edge of the edge of the massage, the order is as follows: ① exposed side of the upper limb, from the neck along the upper arm Rub back to the back of the hand, from the side of the chest through the medial armpit to the palm of the hand, with the law to wipe the other upper limb; so that patients side, exposed back, from the neck down the whole back,
② exposed side of the lower limbs, from the hip along the side of the leg rubbed to the back of the foot, from the inside of the groin to rub the ankle, from the stock by the popliteal fossa to the heel; wipe the other leg with the law, , Remove the hot water bottle cover the quilt.
3.30min after the measurement of body temperature, and recorded in the body temperature alone, such as body temperature dropped to 38.5 ℃, should be removed head ice bag.
1. Wipe the process, should observe the patient's general condition, if chills, pale, pulse, breathing abnormalities, should immediately stop, notify the physician.
2. Heat stroke, high fever patients can also set ice bags in the neck, axils, groin, etc., to help cool.
3. Breath chest area, abdomen, neck, these parts of the cold stimulation sensitive, easy to cause adverse reactions.
4. Wipe the armpit, palm, groin, popliteal fossa, soles of the feet and other parts, the force can be slightly larger, the time can be slightly longer, favorable cooling.
Ethanol rubbing bath
Treatment bowl Sheng 50% ethanol 200-300m1, the temperature at about 30 ℃, the rest of the supplies and operation with warm water bath.
Ice blanket machine cryotherapy method is the use of semiconductor refrigeration principle, the water tank cooling water cooling. And then through the host work and ice in the ice to exchange the water, to promote the carpet surface contact with the skin to heat, to achieve cooling purposes.
The whole body cooling method of ice blanket is divided into two kinds: simple cooling method and mild hypothermia treatment. Simple cooling method for high fever and other poor cooling effect of patients; mild hypothermia treatment for severe craniocerebral injury.
1. Simple cooling ice blanket machine 1, rectal temperature sensor, sensor protective film, anal table 1, a little liquid paraffin, distilled water 8L.
2. Mild hypothermia treatment with a simple method of cooling materials, another preparation of artificial ventilator 1, muscle relaxant (succinylcholine, card muscle Ning, etc.), microcomputer infusion pump, bedside monitor l Taiwan.
1. Simple cooling method
(1) the ice blanket machine set the patient bed, the host side of the left side of the overflow cap screw cap, the injection of water into the tank into the distilled water about 8L until the overflow overflow water so far, and then screw cap on. The blanket is covered with a protective layer, such as a thin layer of urine pad or a single sheet. Remove the patient from the farm and place the ice blanket on the patient's entire back.
(2) first use anal table test rectal temperature 1, and for the record. Connect the rectal temperature sensor (some machine rectal temperature sensor has been arranged directly on the host), the sensor protective film set at the top of the rectal temperature sensor, placed in the anus, about 10cm deep, with adhesive tape fixed in the perineum and thigh The
(3) turn on the power, open the host switch, about 4-6min, until the device cycle steady state, the next step.
(4) with the measured rectal temperature proofreading method, see the ice blanket machine instructions.
(5) proofreading, until the rectal temperature is correct display, set the machine temperature, the lower limit, generally used for cooling, the upper limit of 37 ℃, the lower limit of 36 ℃. (">"), When the machine starts "cooling", when <36 ℃, the machine automatically stop "cooling".
2. Mild hypothermia therapy
(1) method with a simple cooling method, but set the machine temperature limit of 35 ℃, the lower limit of 32 ℃.
(2) intravenous drip with muscle relaxant liquid, while the application of artificial ventilator assisted breathing. Muscle relaxant dose depending on the individual differences and the condition may be. Generally for the saline 500m1 Jiaka muscle Ning 400mg, with infusion pump control constant speed, depending on the speed of the disease, body temperature changes may be. Induced cooling, the drip rate is generally 20-40ml children, to rectal temperature dropped to 35 ℃ below, change the maintenance rate, usually 10 to 20ml / h.
(3) rewarming method: rewarming when the ice blanket cooler, to take the natural rewarming method, rewarming process, if necessary, appropriate use of muscle relaxants and sedatives.
1. Timely observation of vital signs, especially the breathing situation. The use of muscle relaxants in the treatment of mild hypothermia requires both ventilator-assisted breathing.
2. Note the situation of intracranial pressure, under conditions permit should be placed within the intracranial pressure monitoring device, dynamic observation of intracranial pressure changes, to prevent brain perfusion, maintenance
Brain pressure below 2.7kPa (20mmHg), cerebral perfusion pressure in 8. OkPa (60mmHg) or more.
3. Observation, record the time of cooling, muscle relaxation and muscle relaxant drip rate, according to the rectal temperature at any time to adjust the muscle fluff drip rate. If necessary, with anal table test rectal temperature re-proofreading, timely adjustment of the machine temperature, the lower limit.
4. Observe the work of the thermometer, keep the thermometer in normal operation.